FILE PHOTO: Frances Arnold, Dick and Barbara Dickinson Professor of Chemical Engineering and Biochemistry, California Institute of Technology, participates in the Investing in the Future: Accelerating the Clean-Tech Revolution panel at the 2008 Milken Institute Global Conference in Beverly Hills, California April 30, 2008.
All three scientists took Charles Darwin's idea of natural selection, in which molecules or organisms accumulate mutations in a slow, random process, and figured out ways to identify and select specific mutations that improve the ability of molecules such as proteins and enzymes-workhorses that cells use to carry out all their basic functions-to attach to and change still other molecules.
Winter, of the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom, then harnessed that method and used it to direct the evolution of new antibodies - immune proteins that bind to and neutralize pathogens such as bacteria or viruses - with the aim of making new drugs.
Nobel chemistry laureate George Smith, reached at his home in Columbia, Missouri, was quick to credit the work of others in his prize. Medications for rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel diseases have come from their work.
"Very few research breakthroughs are novel".
LTE speed tests show the iPhone XS dominates the iPhone X
A 20 MHz channel of LTE Band 4 was used, which is common to AT&T, T-Mobile, Verizon, and all of the major Canadian carriers. Last year, the iPhone X had an Intel XMM 7480 with 2×2 MIMO support, meaning the phone had two download antenna branches.
He built up a collection of phages, with billions of antibody varieties on their surface, and engineered them make them more effective. "It's happenstance. That was certainly the case with my work", he said. "Mine was an idea in a line of research that built very naturally on the lines of research that went before". "But there was so much static on the line, I knew it wasn't any of my friends", he said. Smith realised that this could be handy: for example if it wasn't known what protein a particular gene gave rise to, it could be put into a phage and the mystery protein would appear on the surface and could be identified.
The next Nobel, the Peace Prize, will be announced on Friday.
The 9-million-kronor ($1.01 million) chemistry prize is the last of this year's scientific Nobel Prizes. Chemistry is the third of this year's Nobel Prizes after the winners of the medicine and physics awards were announced earlier this week.
Wife of former Malaysian PM Najib arrested in graft scandal
She reportedly arrived at the MACC headquarters at 10.40am this morning, and this marks her third (and possibly final) visit. Rosmah was first summoned by the agency on June 5 and again on September 26, when she was questioned for almost 13 hours.
Amazon's latest Fire TV Stick offers 4K for $50
The new Alexa Voice Remote will ship from 31 October, and Amazon said it will include it with the Fire TV Cube going forward. Saying "find 4K movies" into the Alexa-powered remote should bring up "thousands" of Ultra HD titles.
Local dairy farmers would benefit from new NAFTA deal
NAFTA had been created to reduce trade barriers between Canada, the US and Mexico by eliminating tariffs on traded products. Canada's counter-tariffs on US goods also remain intact. "It's in everyone's best interest to life the tariffs", he said.
Massive LNG project in northern BC reportedly given the go-ahead
Shell operates LNG Canada with a 40% stake and is partnered by Petronas (25%), PetroChina (15%), Mitsubishi (15%) and Kogas (5%). The joint venture of JGC-Fluor Corp has been appointed as the project's engineering, procurement and construction contractor.
LAPD makes arrests in string of celebrity home burglaries
In addition to the stars already targeted, the crime syndicate had plans to target LeBron James , Viola Davis, and Matt Damon. There's even video evidence that cops suspect is Tyress, that sees him kicking down the front door of Yasiel's home.